Sodium-ion Battery Materials

Sodium-ion Battery Materials

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Na-ion Cathode Materials

Just as is the case with lithium-ion batteries, cathode materials are a key component of Sodium-ion batteries. The composition of the cathode material determines the cell voltage and capacity, and thereby the energy density. Sodium-ion cathode materials are typically based on intercalation / de-intercalation compounds, where sodium ions provided by the cathode are inserted into the host lattice (anode) during charge and extracted during discharge, with minimal structural change in the host material.

In contrast to lithium, sodium is one of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust. Consequently, Na-ion batteries have attracted much attention over the past few years. The choice of cathode material with a particular chemistry depends on various factors, including cell voltage, capacity, energy and power capabilities, cycle life, and temperature of operation.

Custom Compositions

NEI can provide a variety of custom synthesized Na-ion cathode materials upon request (some examples are shown below):

Cathode Material Type
Composition
Nominal Voltage vs. Na
Advantages
Applications
Nominal Capacity at 0.1C
Minimum Acceptable Capacity
Na-Transition Metal
Carbonophosphates
Na3MnPO4CO3~3.3 VHigh energyPortable electronics and electric vehicles191 mAh/g (theoretical)191 mAh/g (theoretical)
Simple Layered
Na-Compounds
NaxMO2
(M= Co, Fe, Mn, Ni)
~3.2VComparable power to that of LiCoO2Power tools~110 mAh/g~85 mAh/g
Na-Transition Metal
(Olivine Type) Phosphates
NaMPO4
(M=Fe, Mn, Co, Ni)
~3.0VHigh energy~120 mAh/g~110 mAh/g
Na-Transition Metal
Fluro Phosphates
Na2FePO4F ~2.97VComparable power to that of LiCoO2Portable electronics~110 mAh/g~80 mAh/g

Polymer-based Solid State Electrolytes

NEI provides solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable solid-state sodium batteries. The electrolytes are based on low lattice energy sodium salts (e.g.  NaTFSI), dissolved in polyether-containing polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide). One of the polymers developed at NEI Corporation using the copolymer strategy is H-polymer. As a 100% solid material, H-polymer combines the benefits of high room temperature ionic conductivity with good mechanical properties of a solid polymer.

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